Objective: The human intestine harbors trillions of commensal microbes that live in homeostasis with the host immune system. Changes in the composition and complexity of gut microbial communities are seenininflammatoryboweldisease (IBD),indicating disruption in host-microbe interactions. Multiple factors including diet and inflammatory conditions alter the microbial complexity. The goal of this study was to develop an optimized methodology for fecal sample processing and to detect changes in the gut microbiota of patients with Crohn’s disease receiving specialized diets.
Design: Fecal samples were obtained from patients with Crohn’s disease in a pilot diet crossover trial comparing the effects of a specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) versus a low residue diet (LRD) on the composition and complexity of the gut microbiota and resolution of IBD symptoms. The gut microbiota composition was assessed using a high-density DNA microarray PhyloChip.
Results: DNA extraction from fecal samples using a column based method provided consistent results. The complexity of the gut microbiome was lower in IBD patients compared to healthy controls. An increased abundance of Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) was observed in fecal samples from IBD positive patients. The temporal response of gut microbiome to the SCD resulted in an increased microbial diversity while the LRD diet was associated with reduced diversity of the microbial communities.
Conclusion: Changes in the composition and complexity of the gut microbiome were identified in response to specialized carbohydrate diet. The SCD was associated with restructuring of the gut microbial communities.
Keywords: IBD; Crohn’s Disease; Fecal microbiome; Diet Modification; PhyloChip